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Why Is It Difficult For Antibodies to Fight AIDS?

The primary target for HIV is the ENV glycoprotein. This head protein interacts with the T-cell receptor CD4 which is how HIV enters its target cell.





As a glycoprotein, it has numerous sugars on the outside surface. Those sugars protect the head protein. ENV itself is broken up into two portions, the GP120 and the GP41 domains. The bottom figure shows the sequence conservation of the GP120 protein. In green are the sugars. In white are the conserved domains and in purple are the more variable domains. As it can be seen, when the protein is in its closed state, the headgroup is protected by sugars. The exposed protein domains are the most variable portions of the protein.

Are Your Teeth Changing Colour? Here's Why

Once upon a time, you had smile that could easily be used for a toothpaste commercial. And then suddenly your teeth went from spotless white to irritating yellow.
How did it happen?
   You brush your teeth everyday so it's hard to understand why they're turning yellow. It could just be that you're doing some things which are staining your teeth
and causing the discoloration.
Here are some of the popular causes of yellow teeth below, you might be surprised at how many you are guilty of.


Tobacco use: Smoking or chewing tobacco especially for a long time can cause the teeth to turn yellow.


Poor Dental Hygiene: Irregular brushing and flushing can cause teeth discoloration. And if you didn't already know, you're supposed to brush your teeth twice a day. Also rinsing your mouth with an antiseptic mouthwash will prevent plague, bacteria and stain-producing substances. So, it should be part of your daily oral Hygiene regimen. This will reduce the chances of your teeth tu…

Seven every day habit that can make your eyesight as clear as day

make your eyesight as clear as day. Reduce Screen Time
Smartphones, laptops, and other devices are a big part of our lives today, and while they are very useful, they’re not doing anything to protect your eyesight. Staring at the screen for extended periods of time can cause computer vision syndrome, which is marked by eye strain, blurred vision, headaches, and dry eyes. Take frequent breaks during the day by way of the 20-20-20 rule. Every 20 minutes, look away at something else for 20 seconds that’s at least 20 feet away, to give your eyes a break from using your near vision. This is why you have tired eyes after a long work day. Quit Smoking
Tobacco is extremely toxic to the cells of the retina, a thin layer of tissue lining the back of the eye, and significantly increases the risk of developing macular degeneration, which may lead to blindness. Macular degeneration occurs when the central part of the retina (the macula) deteriorates. Stay Hydrated
Dehydration worsens dry eye symptoms, …